Refers to an excessive accumulation of fat in the body, or an increase in weight beyond that considered desirable for a particular animal’s age, height, and bone structure.

Orchiectomy (Neuter)

Surgical excision of the testicles, also known as castration, used as a means of preventing reproduction. Removal of the testes before puberty diminishes the development of secondary sex characteristics and behavior because of the deficiency of testosterone. Males that remain “intact” (not neutered) have a higher incidence of testicular cancer, prostatic disease, and aggression than males that are neutered.

Ovariohysterectomy (Spay)

Surgical excision of the ovaries and the uterus (the entire female reproductive tract), used as a means of preventing pregnancy or removing a diseased/ infected uterus. Females that are spayed before their first heat cycle are much less likely to develop mammary adenocarcinoma (breast cancer) later in life than females who remain “intact” (not spayed).